US18650VTC4
Cell Origin  purchased on free market 
Cell Format  18650 
Dimensions  18 x 65 mm 
Weight  45.1 g 
Voltage Range ^{[definition]}^{[close]}
The voltage range represents the electrical limits as used in the Batemo battery laboratory. Please see the Sony US18650VTC4 data sheet for the precise definition of the voltage safe area of operation of the cell.

2.5 … 4.2 V 
Temperature Range ^{[definition]}^{[close]}
The temperature range represents the thermal limits as used in the Batemo battery laboratory. Please see the Sony US18650VTC4 data sheet for the precise definition of the temperature safe area of operation of the cell.

25 … 80 °C 
Current ^{[definition]}^{[close]}
All quantities are measured in the Batemo battery laboratory. The cell current is defined to be the current the cell can deliver for 5 minutes. Therefore the cell is discharged from 100% SOC at an ambient temperature of 25°C with a constant current until either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached after 5 minutes. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. This operation of the cell might be outside the specification of the cell manufacturer. 
21.92 A 
Power ^{[definition]}^{[close]}
All quantities are measured in the Batemo battery laboratory. The cell power is defined to be the power the cell can deliver for 5 minutes. Therefore the cell is discharged from 100% SOC at an ambient temperature of 25°C with a constant current until either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached after 5 minutes. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. This operation of the cell might be outside the specification of the cell manufacturer. 
71.5 W 
Capacity ^{[definition]}^{[close]}
All quantities are measured in the battery laboratory of Batemo GmbH. The capacity is measured by discharging the cell at an ambient temperature of 25°C from 100% with a constant current of 1.05A (0.5C) until the voltage of 2.5V is reached. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. 
nominal 2.10 Ah coulombic 2.08 Ah energetic 7.61 Wh 
Energy Density ^{[definition]}^{[close]}
All quantities are measured in the battery laboratory of Batemo GmbH. The energy density is measured by discharging the cell at an ambient temperature of 25°C from 100% with a constant current of 1.05A (0.5C) until the voltage of 2.5V is reached. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. 
gravimetric 169 Wh/kg volumetric 460 Wh/l 
Power Density ^{[definition]}^{[close]}
All quantities are measured in the Batemo battery laboratory. The cell power density is defined to be the power the cell can deliver for 5 minutes. Therefore the cell is discharged from 100% SOC at an ambient temperature of 25°C with a constant current until either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached after 5 minutes. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. This operation of the cell might be outside the specification of the cell manufacturer. 
gravimetric 1.59 kW/kg volumetric 4.33 kW/l 
Batemo Cell Validation
The Batemo Cell of the lithiumion battery cell Sony US18650VTC4 is a highprecision, physical cell model with global validity. As a digital twin it seamlessly integrates into your research, development and battery analytics by basing your decisions on simulations. The accuracy and validity of the Batemo Cell will thus be demonstrated in the range given below. Validation is extensive, measurements are performed in the total operational area of the cell: At low and high temperatures, up to the maximal current and in the whole state of charge range.
Current Range  32 A discharge ... 6 A charge (15.0C ... 3.0C) 
Temperature Range  26 ... 80 °C 
Voltage Range  2.5 ... 4.2 V 
State of Charge Range  0 ... 100% 
Moreover, the Batemo Cell validation will be fully transparent. The raw measurement and simulation data of all experiments will be supplied, and voltage, temperature, power and energy accuracies are calculated. This allows for straightforward evaluation and analysis of the Batemo Cell validity. The following experiments are included.
Constant Currents
The cell is discharged from 100% SOC or charged from 0% SOC with different constant currents at different ambient temperatures. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or 4.2V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached. The graph shows for which ambient temperatures and charging and discharging constant currents the measurement is performed.
Pulse Currents
The cell is discharged from 100% SOC or charged from 0% SOC with current pulses followed by noload phases at different ambient temperatures. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or 4.2V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached. The graph shows the ambient temperatures and pulse currents the measurement is performed for.
Power Profiles
The cell is loaded with a typical power profile from 100% SOC at different ambient temperatures. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached. The table summarizes for which ambient temperatures the profile is measured.
Ambient Temperature  Available 

0 °C  
25 °C  
40 °C 
Batemo Cell Accuracy
The graphs show a selection of characteristic data of the cell Sony US18650VTC4 to evaluate the cell performance. The accuracy of the Batemo Cell is included as soon as the Batemo Cell is finished.
 Discharge Characteristics: The electrical and thermal discharge behavior is strongly nonlinear.
 Pulse Characteristics: The shape of different current pulses changes strongly.
 Energy Characteristics: The graph visualizes how much energy the cell can deliver when operated at different powers.
 Power Characteristics: The more power the cell supplies, the shorter it can deliver the power.
 Thermal Characteristics: The thermal losses heat up the cell the more, the higher the depleted power is.
^{[show experiment definitions]}^{[close]}
The cell is discharged from 100% SOC with different constant currents at different ambient temperatures. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached.
The cell is discharged from 100% SOC with current pulses followed by noload phases at different ambient temperatures. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached. The graph shows a zoomed view of the measurement to visualize one of the pulses.
The cell is discharged from 100% SOC with different constant currents at 25°C. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached. The exchanged energy and the average power of the experiment is derived and shown in the graph.
The cell is discharged from 100% SOC with different constant currents at 25°C. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached. The experiment duration and the average power of the experiment is derived and shown in the graph.
The cell is discharged from 100% SOC with different constant currents at 25°C. The thermal boundary condition is free convection. The measurement is finished when either the voltage of 2.5V or the surface temperature of 80°C is reached. The cell surface temperature at the end and the average power of the experiment is derived and shown in the graph.
The mean accuracies are published as soon as the Batemo Cell is finished.
Implementations
The implementations are published as soon as the Batemo Cell is finished.